무제 문서 ::KRIMA:::21세기군사연구소-월간KDR
:::KRIMA:::::21세기군사연구소
무제 문서

공지사항

웹사이트개편작업중입니다..
 

Update News..

[사이트] 새로운메뉴가 추가됩니다
다양한 멀티미디어, 인터뷰, 리뷰, 기고문,행사안내 등의 컨텐츠가 신설된 메뉴를 통해 제공될 예정입니다.
김진욱의 눈
 백년전우 김진욱 편
 사회복무제도의 효율적 운영방안
 제5회 한-중 안보포럼
 Join Us ..

 

 



 로그인

Sun Tzu and IR Theories
김진욱  2009-02-03 16:07:21, 조회 : 25,378, 추천 : 2478




Sun Tzu and IR Theories

Sun Tzu was one of the earliest realists in international relations theory. He is known as the author of Sun Tzu Bing Fa (The Art of War) which is influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy. The work is considered to be a prime example of Taoist strategy.

Sun Tzu, both as an author of the Art of War and a legendary figure, had an immense impact on Chinese and Asian history and culture. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the Art of War gained popularity and saw practical use in Western society. He still remains highly influential in both Asian and Western culture and politics.


Generally speaking Sun Tzu Bing Fa and IR theories are common in both of which are dealing with relations between the states. But both are really different from each other as much as Chinese theory of International Relations is different from Western theories. Some could think while Sun Tzu Bing Fa deals with War, IR theories deals with peace. So, some may say One is for War, the other is for Peace. However it is a misperception.

Sun Tzu emphasize in the very beginning of Sun Tzu Bing Fa that 'Military action is important to the nation which is the ground of death and life, the path of survival and destruction, so it is imperative to examine it and says in Chapter 3 'Mogong' (Planning a Siege) of Bing Fa that 'it is the best way to win without fighting.' He is arguing not war or military action but peaceful arrangement without fighting in the indispensible conflict situations.

Sun Tzu Bing Fa is derived from Taoism. There is the close link between the philosophy in Sun Tzu Bing Fa and Taoism. Without understanding Taoism it is not possible to understand Sun Tzu Bing Fa. How does Taoism see the Nature or the nature of international affairs? Sun Tzu Bing Fa starts from that point. Taoist sees that Competition and Conflicts are just natural in the Nature which is the essential characters for evolving itself.

It is also same among the countries in the international jungle world. Conflicts and hostilities are just natural among the countries for developing themselves. In that situations Taoism is suggesting the way how they could be harmoniously managed. And in that manner Sun Tzu argues how the states could be balanced without projecting their powers.


Sun Tzu and Realism

Morgenthau explains the power pursuit propensity of states is derived from the basic nature of human beings which is the start of classical realism; one of the representative of IR theories. While Morgenthau compares nature of the states with nature of human beings, Sun Tzu compares nature of the states with not only nature of human beings but also the law of nature and the nature of Cosmos. The nature of human beings is derived basically from the nature of Cosmos.

Sun Tzu percepts and admits that phenomenon of the power pursuit propensity of states and power conflicts among international countries and argues that it must not be leaded to War as natures go on quarrels into Zero-Sum game.

Sun Tzu says in the first chapter 'Shi Ji'(Strategic Assessments) of Bing Fa that you should measure in terms of five things for military action, use these assessments to make comparisons and thus find out what the conditions are. The five things are the way, the weather, the terrain, the leadership, and discipline. And he explains about the first thing; the way (Tao) which is the essence of Taoism that 'it means inducing the people to have the same aim as the leadership, so that they will share death and share life, without fear of danger.' In oriental society it is the common sense that the nature of people is the nature of heaven. So Sun Tzu says people's intention referring Tao; the first thing of measurement for military action which literally means the way of Cosmos.


Sun Tzu and Constructivism

Constructivist theory argues that the state of anarchy is a structural condition inherent in the system of states. Sun Tzu as one of the Taoists sees that anarchy itself derived from the chaos of Cosmos. Constructivists argue that Anarchy is the result of a process that constructs the rules or norms that govern the interaction of states. If we substitute the perspectives of Taoism for that situation, we could say that states are processing according to their natures given as a part of Cosmos. Cosmos has setup in order from the Chaos. So Sun Tzu says it is also possible to change the anarchic nature of the system of states into harmonious order. In a sense Sun Tzu is representing Constructivists rather than realists.


Sun Tzu and Critical Social Theorist stance

Sun Tzu Bing Fa is very close to the approach and methodology of Critical Social Theorist stance. Sun Tzu says in the 3rd chapter 'Mo Gong'(Planning a Siege) of Bing Fa that 'If the general cannot overcome his anger and has his army swarm over the citadel, killing a third of his soldiers, and yet the citadel is still not taken, this is a disastrous attack. Therefore one who is good at martial arts overcomes others' forces without battle, conquers others' cities without siege, and destroys others' nations without taking a long time. It is imperative to contest all factions for complete victory, so the army is not garrisoned and the profit can be total. This is the law of strategic siege.'

In Sun Tzu Bing Far he is not explaining about the fact of situations between the states or power relations but criticizing the attitude of power materialization as Critical theorist investigates by providing grounds for the justification and criticism of the institutions, practices and mentalities that make up that reality. Sun Tzu Bing Far is very similar to the Critical theory in which both attempt to bridge between philosophical and substantive concerns, pure and applied theory, explanation and justification.

Sun Tzu says in the 3rd chapter 'Mo Gong'(Planning a Siege) of Bing Fa 'the best victory is when the opponent surrenders of its own accord before there are any showing hostilities... A clever fighter is one who not only wins, but excels in winning with ease. The more you read and learn, the less your adversary will know. What is essential in war is victory, not prolonged operations.'


Conclusion

So far I have researched what commonness and differences found between Sun Tzu Bing Fa and IR theories, what features of Sun Tzu Bing Fa found from the IR theories and how we can apply Sun Tzu Bing Fa to IR theories. It is true Sun Tzu Bing Fa explains much about the tactics about the War. But it says not only the skill or art of the War but also the nature of the War and the nature of the States. In that sense Sun Tzu Bing Fa was a classical IR theory.





  추천하기   목록보기

번호 제목 작성자 작성일   추천 조회
384  [동영상] 국군방송 인물다큐 : 평화를 위한 무한도전-김진욱    military 2008/01/31 9766 96924
383  나이 들어 공부 좀 해보려고 합니다. - Who is Kim Jinwoog?    김진욱 2009/01/11 2494 83679
382  ROK Navy’s “Operation Dawn in the Gulf of Aden”    김진욱 2011/02/04 1878 39438
381  Distorted Security Value in Korean Peninsula    김진욱 2009/02/01 2637 31682
380    [Urantia] Korean Urantia Association Report written by UAI Membership chair.    military 2009/02/11 2408 26422
379  [Urantia] A Personal Story from a Korean Reader /written by KIM    military 2009/02/11 2468 26105
378  사모님들의 행차...    김진욱 2009/05/23 2634 25629
377  합동성 관련 MOU 협약 인사말 (답사)    김진욱 2009/03/13 2413 25414
 Sun Tzu and IR Theories    김진욱 2009/02/03 2478 25378
375  제6회 한중안보포럼과 관련하여...    김진욱 2008/11/03 2536 25122
374  美國式의 合理와 美國式 無智    김진욱 2008/11/14 2355 24859
373  군사세계 창간 15주년 인사말    김진욱 2009/03/25 2214 24700
372  왜곡된 안보가치    김진욱 2009/02/08 2349 24683
371  The Future of Six-Party Talks (by Kim Jin-Wook)    김진욱 2009/04/25 2420 24387
370   북한핵, 군사제재 부르는가!     2006/10/07 2462 24320
369  謹 賀 新 年    김진욱 2008/12/20 3094 24087
368  국군방송 국방초대석 인터뷰 - 연평해전    김진욱 2009/06/29 2224 23702
367  건군 60주년에 즈음하여...    김진욱 2008/09/30 2474 23625
366  누가 북한을 핵보유국으로 만들었나?    김진욱 2009/05/25 2367 23614
365  삼성탈레스에서 개발한 차세대 포병 관측장비 “TAS-1”  [1]   2007/07/03 2423 23440
364  노무현 대통령의 죽음 (김재엽)  [1]  김진욱 2009/05/24 2238 23251
363  '박경철의 공감 80분' - 키워드 "비주류"    김진욱 2009/08/16 2522 23074
362  나마스떼 인디아...    김진욱 2009/08/14 2476 22899
361  일본 세계정경조사회 초청 강의내용 (9월 7일)     2007/10/25 2535 22660
360  신개념기술시범(ACTD) 적용분야 정립 및 실용성 평가 연구     2007/12/12 2339 22371
359  장수들이여! 정치 잔기술을 배우지 말고 宇宙自然의 哲理를 배우라.     2007/12/05 2338 21983
358  전투 모의실험 시나리오 표준화 연구...     2008/01/10 2492 21779
357  제야의 종소리를 들으며...     2008/01/01 2677 21651
356  야구 전두환의 승리다.    김진욱 2008/08/22 2516 21562
355  단상 - 시공의 우주에서 최상신이 극복해야할 내부적 도전과 외부적 도전     2007/12/05 2462 21539

    목록보기   다음페이지 1 [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]..[13]   [다음 10개]
       

Copyright 1999-2022 Zeroboard / skin by zero



占쏙옙占쏙옙 占쏙옙占쏙옙


Contact Us